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Featured article of the month archive - 2021

Welcome to the CannaQAwiki 2021 archive for the Featured Article of the Month.

Featured article of the month: December 2021:

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"An assessment of heavy metal contaminants related to cannabis-based products in the South African market"

South African cannabis-based products that were submitted to a private laboratory for the determination of heavy metals residues were analyzed. The presence of each heavy metal residue was determined in order to establish which residues are most prevalent in samples. Two specifications were considered for both oral as well as inhalation limits: United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <232>/<233> and the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q3D. To date, no data of this kind exist in South Africa specifically relating to cannabis-based medicinal, recreational, or complementary products ... (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: November 2021:

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"Essential oil of Cannabis sativa L: Comparison of yield and chemical composition of 11 hemp genotypes"

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual species cultivated since antiquity for different purposes. While in the past hemp inflorescences were considered crop residues, at present they are regarded as valuable raw materials with different applications, among which extraction of the essential oil (EO) has gained increasing interest in many fields. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the yield and the chemical composition of the EO obtained by hydrodistillation from 11 hemp genotypes ... (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: October 2021:

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"Risk assessment of over-the-counter cannabinoid-based cosmetics: Legal and regulatory issues governing the safety of cannabinoid-based cosmetics in the UAE"

The lack of scientific evidence of the safety and efficacy of over-the-counter topical cannabinoid-based cosmetics remains a concern. The current study attempted to assess the quality of cannabinoid-based cosmetic products available on the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) market. In particular, the study attempted to quantify the presence of undeclared tetrahydrocannabinol—specifically delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid9-THCA)—in these products. (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: September 2021:

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"Metabolomic analysis of cannabinoid and essential oil profiles in different hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) phenotypes"

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cannabinoids and terpenoids have therapeutic effects on human and animal health. Cannabis plants can often have a relatively high heterogeneity, which leads to different phenotypes that have different chemical profiles despite being from the same variety. Little information exists about cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles in different hemp phenotypes within the same variety. For this study, 11 phenotypes from three different varieties—Carmagnola Selected (CS), Tiborszallasi (TS), and Finola Selection (FS)—were analyzed ...(Full article...)

Featured article of the month: August 2021:

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"Accelerated solvent extraction of terpenes in cannabis coupled with various injection techniques for GC-MS analysis"

The cannabis market is expanding exponentially in the United States. As state-wide legalization efforts increase, so also do demands for analytical testing methodologies. One of the main tests conducted on cannabis products is the analysis for terpenes. This research focused on implementation of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), utilizing surrogate matrix matching, and evaluation of traditional vs. more modern sample introduction techniques for analyzing terpenes via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ...(Full article...)

Featured article of the month: July 2021:

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"Accounting and the US cannabis industry: Federal financial regulations and the perspectives of certified public accountants and cannabis businesses owners"

Cannabis-related businesses (CRBs), in states where cannabis is legal, may be unable to obtain professional financial services such as banking, insurance, and accounting because of federal laws and regulations. This qualitative study investigated the following research questions: 1. Why are some certified public accountants (CPAs) unwilling to provide services to cannabis-related businesses? 2. How do CRBs compensate for lack of CPA services? 3. What does a CPA need to know about the cannabis industry prior to engaging to provide services to CRBs? Data for this grounded-theory qualitative study was gathered from twenty-three semi-structured phone and face-to-face interviews. (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: June 2021:

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"Development of a gas-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of cannabinoids and terpenes in hemp"

An original gas-chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous determination of major terpenes and cannabinoids in plant samples and their extracts. The main issues to be addressed were not only the large differences in polarity and volatility between both groups of analytes, but also the need for an exhaustive decarboxylation of cannabinoid acidic forms. Sample preparation was minimized by avoiding any analyte derivatization. Acetone was found to be the most appropriate extraction solvent. Successful chromatographic separation was achieved by using a medium-polarity column. Limits of detection ranged from 120 to 260 ng/mL for terpenes and from 660 to 860 ng/mL for cannabinoids. (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: May 2021:

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"Cannabinoid, terpene, and heavy metal analysis of 29 over-the-counter commercial veterinary hemp supplements"

The use of veterinary low-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa (i.e., hemp) products has increased in popularity for a variety of pet ailments. Low-THC Cannabis sativa is federally legal for sale and distribution in the United States, and the rise in internet commerce has provided access to interested consumers, with minimal quality control. We performed an internet word search of “hemp extract and dog” or “CBD product and dog” and analyzed 29 products that were using low-THC Cannabis sativa extracts in their production of supplements. All products were tested for major cannabinoids, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and other minor cannabinoids, as well as their respective carboxylic acid derivatives tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) using an ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory.(Full article...)

Featured article of the month: March 2021:

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"Methods for quantification of cannabinoids: A narrative review"

Around 144 cannabinoids have been identified in the Cannabis plant; among them tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prominent ones. Because of the legal restrictions on cannabis in many countries, it is difficult to obtain standards to use in research; nonetheless, it is important to develop a cannabinoid quantification technique, with practical pharmaceutical applications for quality control of future therapeutic cannabinoids. To find relevant articles for this narrative review paper, a combination of keywords such as "medicinal cannabis," "analytical," "quantification," and "cannabinoids" were searched for in PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library (Wiley) databases. (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: February 2021:


"Analysis of phenolic compounds in commercial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS"

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., family Cannabaceae) contains a vast number of relevant bioactive organic compounds, namely polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenol amides, and lignanamides, which are well known for their therapeutic properties. Nowadays, many polyphenol-containing products made from herbal extracts are marketed, claiming to have health-promoting effects. In this context, industrial hemp inflorescences may represent an innovative source of bioactive compounds to be used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the polyphenolic fraction contained in polar extracts of four different commercial cultivars—Kompolti, Tiborszallasi, Antal, and Selected Carmagnola (CS)—of hemp inflorescence ... (Full article...)

Featured article of the month: January 2021:

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"Analysis of cannabidiol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their acids in CBD/hemp oil products"

Hemp products are readily available and are aggressively marketed for their health and medicinal benefits. Most consumers of these products are interested because of their cannabidiol (CBD) content, which has taken the natural products industry by storm. The CBD and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) concentrations in these products are often absent, and even where labeled, the accuracy of the label amounts is often questionable. In order to gain a better understanding of the CBD content, fifty hemp products were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for CBD, delta-9-THC, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (delta-9-THCAA), and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). Delta-9-THCAA and CBDA are the natural precursors of delta-9-THC and CBD in the plant material. (Full article...)