Accelerated solvent extraction
|Manufacturers||Thermo Fisher Scientific|
|Related||Solid phase extraction|
Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a method for extracting various chemicals from a complex solid or semisolid sample matrix. The process uses high temperature and pressure, which results in the extraction taking less time and requiring less solvent, and possibly also giving better analyte recovery, than traditional methods that use less extreme conditions. The elevated temperature is employed to increase extraction efficiency of the analyte of interest and the elevated pressure is used to keep the solvent in a liquid state as the temperature is increased above its boiling point. An automated system for the process was developed by Dionex, a company owned by Thermo Fisher Scientific.
The extraction cell is filled with the solid sample to be examined and placed in a temperature-controllable oven. After adding the solvent, the cell is heated at constant pressure (adjustable between 0.3 and 20 MPa) up to a maximum temperature of 200°C and kept at constant conditions for a while so that equilibrium can be established. The extract is then transferred to a sample tube. A sample often goes through several extraction cycles. Finally, the extraction cell is rinsed with solvent, the rinsing valve is opened and the cell and all lines are rinsed with nitrogen and the apparatus is prepared for further extractions.
Accelerated solvent extraction has found many applications in the food industry, including in:
- The testing of dietary seafoods for arsenic content
- Extraction of catechins from green tea samples
- Authentication of natural vanilla flavors
- The analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco
- Richter, Bruce E.; Jones, Brian A.; Ezzell, John L.; Porter, Nathan L.; Avdalovic, Nebojsa; Pohl, Chris (1996). "Accelerated Solvent Extraction: A Technique for Sample Preparation". Anal. Chem. 68 (6): 1033–1039. doi:10.1021/ac9508199.
- Murphy, B.J.; Carlson, R.E.; Peterson, J.H.; Richter, Bruce E. (December 2, 2007). "Accelerated Solvent Extraction: Sample Preparation for Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants". Retrieved 2016-05-09.
- "Accelerated Solvent Extraction - Dionex Solvent Extractors". analytica-world.com. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- "Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) - US". Thermo Fisher Scientific. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- "Präanalytische Methoden". Instrumentelle Analytik und Bioanalytik. Springer-Lehrbuch (in German). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2008. pp. 57–90. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-73804-6_3. ISBN 978-3-540-73803-9. ISSN 0937-7433.
- Gallagher, P. A.; Shoemaker, J. A.; Wei, Xinyi; Brockhoff-Schwegel, C. A.; Creed, J. T. (8 January 2001). "Extraction and detection of arsenicals in seaweed via accelerated solvent extraction with ion chromatographic separation and ICP-MS detection". Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 369 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1007/s002160000585. ISSN 0937-0633. PMID 11210234. S2CID 46609876.
- Kellogg, Joshua J.; Wallace, Emily D.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech, Nadja B. (2017). "Conventional and accelerated-solvent extractions of green tea (camellia sinensis) for metabolomics-based chemometrics". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Elsevier BV. 145: 604–610. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2017.07.027. ISSN 0731-7085. PMC 5804813. PMID 28787673.
- Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain (2009). "Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors". Journal of Separation Science. Wiley. 32 (11): 1957–1964. doi:10.1002/jssc.200800650. ISSN 1615-9306. PMID 19425014.
- Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang (18 October 2005). "A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 383 (6): 1003–1008. doi:10.1007/s00216-005-0078-6. ISSN 1618-2642. PMID 16231136. S2CID 8169502.
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